Your Dog's Cranial Cruciate Ligament
In humans, the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a thin connective tissue in the middle of our knees.
This connective tissue in dogs is called the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL or sometimes CrCL) and it connects your dog's tibia (shin bone) to their femur (thigh bone). So, although there are some similarities between your ACL and your dog's CCL they work differently - nonetheless, it's fairly common for people to use the term ACL when referring to their pet's cranial cruciate ligament.
The primary difference between a person's ACL and your pup's CCL is that for dogs, unlike people, this ligament is always load-bearing. This is because your pet's knee always remains bent when they are standing.
Differences Between ACL Injuries in People and CCL Injuries in Dogs
ACL injuries in people are particularly common in athletes. These injuries tend to occur due to an acute trauma stemming from a sudden movement such as a jump or change of direction (think of basketball players in action). In dogs, CCL injuries tend to come on gradually, becoming progressively worse with activity until a tear occurs.
Because the crainial cruciate ligament is so commonly called an ACL, from this point on we will refer to your dog's CCL as their ACL.
Signs of Injuries to The ACL in Dogs
There are a number of symptoms that are commonly seen in dogs with ACL injuries, including:
- Stiffness (particularly after rest, following exercise).
- Difficulty rising off floor.
- Struggling to jump up on furniture or climb stairs.
- Hind leg lameness and limping.
Continued activity on a mildly injured leg will cause the injury to worsen and symptoms to become more pronounced.
Dogs suffering from a single torn ACL will typically begin favoring the non-injured leg during activity which commonly leads to the injury of the second knee. Approximately 60% of dogs with a single ACL injury will go on to injure the other knee soon afterward.
Treating Injuries of ACL in Dogs
There are a number of treatment options available for dogs suffering from ACL injuries. When determining the best treatment for your dog's injury, your vet will take your dog's age, size and weight into consideration as well as your pup's lifestyle and energy level.
Your vet will determine the most appropriate treatment for your dog's ACL injury based on their lifestyle, size, breed and overall health. Options include:
Treating a CCL injury with a knee brace is a non-surgical option that may help to stabilize the knee joint in some dogs. The support provided by a knee brace gives the ligament time to scar over and repair itself. Treating CCL injuries through the use a knee brace may be successful in some dogs when combined with restricted activity.
Extracapsular Repair - Lateral Suture
This surgery involves replacing the torn cruciate ligament with an artificial ligament on the outside of the joint. This ACL surgery for dogs is typically recommended for small to medium sized breeds weighing less than 50lbs.
Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy - TPLO
TPLO is a popular and very successful surgery that works to eliminate the need for the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) by cutting and flattening the tibial plateau, then stabilizing it in a new position with a plate and screws.
Tibial Tuberosity Advancement - TTA
TTA surgery also eliminates the need for the CCL ligament by cutting the top of the tibia, moving it forward, and then stabilizing it in its new position with a stainless steel metal plate.
Recovery from ACL Surgery
Regardless of which treatment you and your vet decide is best for your dog, recovery from a dog ACL injury is a slow process. Expect your dog to require 16 weeks or longer to have complete healing and return to normal function. A year after surgery your dog will be running and jumping like their old self again.
To speed your pup's recovery from an ACL injury be sure to follow your vet's advice and never force your dog to do exercises if they resist. To avoid re-injury be sure to follow your vet's instructions closely and attend regular follow-up appointments so that your veterinarian can monitor your pet's recovery.
Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.